Иностранный язык


Кандидатский экзамен по иностранному языку

I. Кандидатский экзамен по иностранному языку проводится после изучения дисциплины «Иностранный язык» в полном объеме. Кандидатский экзамен предполагает достижение студентами целей подготовки, представляющих собой запланированные результаты обучения.

II. Условием допуска к промежуточной аттестации (2) является написание аспирантом реферата по научной проблематике, соответствующей его направленности.

III. Требования, предъявляемые к реферату:

Реферат представляется в виде перевода оригинального научного текста или его фрагмента объемом 10 000 печатных знаков. Тема реферата – оригинального научного текста – выбирается аспирантом в соответствии с собственной научной проблематикой и утверждается преподавателем дисциплины и научным руководителем.

Реферат  представляет  собой  законченную  самостоятельную  работу объемом 15 – 20 страниц русского текста (перевода).

Общая структура реферата предусматривает:

  1. Титульный лист  с  оборотной  стороной,  на  которой  указывается подробная библиографическая ссылка на источник (Приложение 1).
  2. Русский перевод.
  3. Копию оригинального  научного  текста,   с   которого  выполнен перевод.
  4. Двуязычный словарь – минимум научной лексики и терминов объемом не менее 100 единиц.
  5. Список оригинальных научных источников, прочитанных аспирантом в процессе изучения курса, заверенный подписью научного руководителя.

Реферат представляется аспирантом и рецензируется преподавателем не менее чем за месяц до сдачи кандидатского экзамена.

IV. Примерная структура экзамена:

  1. Чтение и письменный перевод оригинального научного текста со словарем
  2. Ознакомительное чтение и пересказ оригинального научного текста на родном или иностранном языке
  3. Устная презентация о научной работе аспиранта
  4. Беседа по прочитанному публицистическому тексту

V. Программы экзаменов представлены в Рабочей программе дисциплин «Иностранный язык»  по каждой направленности подготовки (на сайте — http://www.unn.ru/sveden/education/edu-op.php)

VI. Пример экзаменационного задания, предъявляемого на кандидатском экзамене:

Чтение и письменный перевод оригинального научного текста со словарем

Wireless networking is an emerging technology that will allow users to access information and services electronically, regardless of their geographic position. The use of wireless communication between mobile users has become increasingly popular due to recent performance advancements in computer and wireless technologies. This has led to lower prices and higher data rates, which are the two main reasons why mobile computing is expected to see increasingly widespread use and applications.

There are two distinct approaches for enabling wireless communications between mobile hosts. The first approach is to use a fixed network infrastructure that provides wireless access points. In this network, a mobile host communicates to the network through an access point within its communication radius. When it goes out of the range of one access point, it connects with a new access point within its range and starts communicating through it. An example of this type of network is the cellular network infrastructure. A major problem of this approach is handoff, which tries to handle the situation when a connection should be smoothly handed over from one access point to another access point without noticeable delay or packet loss. Another issue is that networks based on a fixed infrastructure are limited to places where there exists such network infrastructure.

The second approach is to form an ad-hoc network among users wanting to communicate with each other. This means that all nodes of these networks behave as routers and take part in discovery and maintenance of routes to other nodes in the network. This form of networking is limited in range by the individual nodes transmission ranges and is typically smaller compared to the range of cellular systems. However, ad-hoc networks have several advantages compared to traditional cellular systems. The advantages include ‘on-demand’ setup, fault tolerance, and unconstrained connectivity.

A key feature that sets ad-hoc wireless networks apart from the more traditional cellular radio systems is the ability to operate without a fixed wired communications infrastructure and can therefore be deployed in places with no infrastructure. This is useful in disaster recovery, military situations, and places with non-existing or damaged communication infrastructure where rapid deployment of a communication network is needed.

A fundamental assumption in ad-hoc networks is that any node can be used to forward packets between arbitrary sources and destinations. Some sort of routing protocol is needed to make the routing decisions. A wireless ad-hoc environment introduces many problems such as mobility and limited bandwidth which makes routing difficult.

Ознакомительное чтение и пересказ оригинального научного текста на родном или иностранном языке

Computer-aided speech recognition has been in the research mainstream for the last few decades. “The proper place of men and machines in language translation”, that is, the right distribution of labor between the human translators and the computer-assisted translation system, is one of the key problems  under investigation.

There is a statement attributed to Fred Jelinek “Every time I fire a linguist the results of speech recognition go up”, i.e. explicit linguistic knowledge is dispensable. This sentiment is related to a paradigmatic shift that happened in the computational linguistics in the beginning of the 1990s: with more and more data available and with the advance in the methods of machine learning, more approaches switched from careful encoding of linguistic phenomena to finding statistical correlations in texts (either annotated or raw). The vast majority of publications at major conferences on computational linguistics belong to this paradigm and present a fairly radical stance. The approach implies that it is redundant to encode linguistic knowledge explicitly; a completely automatic machine learning procedure can quickly produce a fast and reliable NLP component which rivals (and in some cases exceeds) the performance of hard-coded linguistic rules requiring the efforts of many person-months (if not years). Hence, the efforts of linguists need to be spent on creating data rather than writing rules

 

Устная презентация о научной работе аспиранта

Беседа по прочитанному публицистическому тексту

 

TEXTING BOOM COULD LEAD TO INJURIES

The popularity of text messaging on mobile phones is continuing to rise, but experts are warning that sending too many could lead to hand injuries.

In February 2002, a record 1.4 billion messages were sent in the UK – 100 million more than in January. The surge is attributed to a boom in messages sent on Valentine’s Day. The Mobile Data association, which compiles the figures, says the 57.5 million messages sent by amorous texters on 14th February was more than double the number sent on the same day last year.

However, the increase could lead to finger and wrist injuries from repetitively pushing the tiny buttons on mobile phones, say medical experts.

A safe text guide with exercises for avoiding injury, including shoulder shrugs and neck-muscle stretches, has been launched by Virgin Mobiles. The guide is backed by the British Chiropractic Association and the Repetitive Strain Injury Association. A spokesman from the BCA said “Text messaging regularly, over a long period of time, could cause repetitive strain and lead to injuries in later life”.

After E.Sharman Across Cultures. Madrid: Pearson Education Limited, 2004. – P. 123

  1. How many messages were approximately sent in the UK on 14th February in 2001?
  2. What caused the massive increase in messages in February 2002?
  3. Why could text-messaging be harmful?
  4. What should the new text guide help to avoid?
  5. What are you to be aware of, as a texter, in order to avoid trouble in your later life?
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